Call for Papers:
The mathematical book trade in the early modern world
Mathematical books were a distinct specialism for certain early modern print shops, and they were of special interest to certain readers and institutions. Mathematical tables, geometrical diagrams and the new algebraic notation made for a distinct appearance on the page and, for many of those involved in their production and use, a distinct class of book. Primers, textbooks and practical manuals as well as new editions of the mathematical classics and works containing new mathematics issued from the presses in large numbers and were purchased, collected, used, and in many cases re-sold, sometimes repeatedly. In what ways was the advertisement, sale and subsequent re-circulation of mathematical books distinctive? What was the place of mathematical books in the activity of book collectors and connoisseurs? Were there distinctive issues in respect of pricing or of re-use of mathematical print? How did the actual use of mathematical books relate to the stratification of the market attempted by some producers and sellers of those books? These issues are the subject of this two-day workshop, to be held in All Souls College, Oxford.
Proposals for papers are invited on, but not confined to, the following subject areas:
-Prices, print runs and advertisement for mathematical books
-Collectors and early modern collections of mathematical books
-Mathematical books as objects of prestige and display
-The trade in second-hand mathematical books
Proposals for papers should include an abstract of no more than 250 words and a brief CV, and should be emailed to firstname.lastname@example.org by 15 September 2019. The conference can contribute to travel costs for speakers.
We are happy to be co-organisers of the conference ‘Reading the Classics of Science: historical and anthropological perspectives’ with the ‘SAW: Mathematical Sciences in the Ancient World’ project and Maison Française d’Oxford. For more information, see http://readingeuclid.org/events/conference/.
Our display of Euclidean texts and artefacts is now open at Blackwell Hall, Weston Library, and will be on view until 15 July 2018. For more information, see the webpage of the display on the ‘Seeing Euclid’ exhibition website.
Guest post by Elizabeth Wells, Archivist and Records Manager at Westminster School
‘he went to Mr. Busby’s, the schoolemaster of Westminster, at whose howse he was; and he made very much of him…There he learnd to play 20 lessons on the organ. He there in one weeke’s time made himselfe master of the first VI bookes of Euclid, to the admiration of Mr. Busby (now S.T.D.), who introduced him’
Dr Richard Busby (1606-1695), Head Master of Westminster School 1638-1695, and his pupil Robert Hooke (1635-1703) both deserve greater notoriety than they currently enjoy. Busby remained a household name until fading from the public consciousness in the 20th Century. His fame was due to his great stature as a pedagogue: other pupils of his include John Locke, Christopher Wren and John Dryden; and to the strict discipline he enforced – Busby once boasted of having birched sixteen of the bishops on the bench in the House of Lords. Hooke’s reputation has been on the rise, thanks in part to Lisa Jardine’s biography, published to mark his tercentenary. However, his contemporary and friend, Wren, with whom he collaborated on so many projects following the fire of London, still eclipses him. It doesn’t help that there is no surviving picture of Hooke, although the popular story, that Isaac Newton destroyed the sole portrait as an act of revenge, is unlikely to be true.
Westminster School is fortunate to hold a substantial number of rare books, the bulk of which were accumulated by Dr Busby during his Head Mastership. A library for the pupils had been founded by donations from Mildred and William Cecil in the 16th Century. Busby, a keen bibliophile, developed the collection. In 1648, the year before Hooke started at Westminster, the school reacquired a space to the south of the main schoolroom to use as a library. . It was a room which Busby let selected pupils use for private study, and it may well have been where Hooke learnt his Euclid, for a contemporary remarked that he ‘seldome sawe him in the schoole’.
Today nineteen editions of Euclid’s work remain in the school’s collection, dating from 1533 until 1678. Could one of these have been the copy that Hooke pored over? We can discount those published after 1654, at which point Hooke had certainly left the school for Oxford, which takes us down to twelve contenders. A further five volumes which are listed in the manuscript library catalogue of the mathematician John Pell (1611-1685) can also be eliminated. These books were purchased by Dr Busby in 1687, following Pell’s death, too late for Hooke to have made use of them. Pell’s books are often easy to spot in the library; his preferred binding style in velum with a green spine label stands out. He was also an attentive, pedantic, reader and regularly annotated and corrected his books.
So what of the remaining seven works in the library? It is improbable that Hooke used the Arabic edition in Busby’s Library which was printed in Rome in 1594. Dr Busby did teach pupils at the school Arabic during his time as Head Master – John Evelyn records that he ‘heard and saw such exercises at the election of scholars at Westminster School to be sent to the University in Latin, Greek, Hebrew, and Arabic, in themes and extemporary verses, as wonderfully astonished me in such youths, with such readiness and wit, some of them not above twelve or thirteen years of age.’ However, Michael Hunter has suggested that it is unlikely that Hooke had much knowledge of the language, and there were certainly no examples of Arabic books amongst Hooke’s own library when it was sold following his death.
Bound as one whole are the three tracts concerning Euclidean geometry edited by Conrad Dasypodius (Rauchfuss), printed in Strasburg in 1564. Dasypodius only included the first two books in full and the third tract contains the ‘enuciations’ of the Euclid’s books III-XIII. In a later edition he explained that he added the enuciations as he did not wish to leave the book unfinished, but that including Euclid’s full work would make the book unwieldy for students. Therefore, if we believe that Hooke fully mastered the first six books we must discount this particular translation.
Our earliest Euclid dates from 1533: Simon Grynaeus’ edition published in Basel. This was the first edition of the Greek text and was based on several rather poor manuscript copies. Hooke might have used this volume, but the binding is very ornate and I wonder if Dr Busby might have held this fine copy in reserve.
A stronger contender is Henry Briggs’ 1620 edition. It is a pleasing folio volume with the first six books in Greek with Latin translation, based on Frederico Commandino’s translation from the Greek.
Dr Busby owned a 1627 copy of the German mathematician, Christopher Clavius’, edition. Clavius did not produce an original translation, but compiled copious notes from previous editors and added his own comments. It was a popular version, first printed in 1574, but with new editions every decade until the mid 17th Century. This version has rather distracting flowers and leaves pointlessly ornamenting the diagrams. Another German edition, this time printed in Wittenberg in 1634, was produced by the mathematician Ambrosius Rhode. This may also have made an unappealing study, as it is a small book with dense type.
Whilst Hooke might have already mastered Euclid after two years at the school, a tempting book to study would have been Thomas Rudd’s edition, printed in London in 1651. This work, unlike the others listed, was an English translation and had the benefit of an additional mathematical preface of John Dee.
Of course, Hooke may have studied any one of these five works, or indeed, a combination of the texts. Perhaps the most interesting point to take away from this exercise is the popularity of Euclid’s work and the range of translations and editions available to pupils at the school.
Hooke and Busby collaborated on a number of building projects in later life, including the ‘beautyfieing of the School & College’. Hooke appears to have acted as the architect and overseer for the redesign of the room Dr Busby called his ‘Museum’, which we now know as the Busby Library. The room was badly damaged by an incendiary bomb in 1940, but has been reconstructed as a faithful replica, based on drawings and photographs in the school’s archive. The majority of Busby’s library survived the blast as the bulk of his collection was evacuated to Christ Church, Oxford, his former college. It is pleasing to think of Hooke employing his Euclidean geometry to construct this beautiful space as a legacy for his former Head Master and a gift to generations of future pupils.
 Smith, Eddie, “Westminster School Buildings, 1630–1730” in Westminster: The Art, Architecture and Archaeology of the Royal Abbey and Palace (British Archaeological Association: 2015) pp. 381-2.
 Hunter, Michael, Robert Hooke: Tercentennial Studies (Routledge: 2006) p. 14.
 Smith, Eddie, “Westminster School Buildings, 1630–1730,” p. 382.
Euclid's Elements of Geometry in Early Modern Britain and Ireland